The Plant Cell 21: 3803-3822 (2009)

Ethylene interacts with abscisic acid to regulate endosperm rupture during germination: a comparative approach using Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana  [W][OA]

Ada Linkies, Kerstin Müller, Karl Morris, Veronika Turecková, Meike Wenk, Cassandra S. C. Cadman, Françoise Corbineau, Miroslav Strnad, James R. Lynn, William E. Finch-Savage, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Institute for Biology II, Botany / Plant Physiology, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany, Web: 'The Seed Biology Place' (A.L., Ke.M., M.W., G.L.-M.)
Warwick Horticulture Research International (HRI), Warwick University, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, United Kingdom (Ka.M., C.S.C.C., J.R.L., W.E.F.-S.)
Palacky University and Institute of Experimental Botany Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Laboratory of Growth Regulators, CZ-78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic (V.T., M.S.)
Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Germination et Dormance des Semences, UR5, Site d'Ivry, F-75005 Paris, France (F.C.)

Received July 23, 2009; Returned for revision October 12, 2009; Accepted November 17, 2009; Published December 18, 2009

ABA biosynthesis

Supplemental Figure 5. Analysis of the transcript expression of key ABA metabolism genes, in whole Lepidium sativum FR14 seeds, by qRT-PCR following treatment with ACC or NBD.

Time course transcript expression data are presented for whole seeds incubated at 24ºC in continuous light in absence (CON) or presence of the ethylene precursor ACC (1 mM), the ethylene action inhibitor NBD (100 µl/l applied via the gas phase), or the combination NBD+ACC. For qRT-PCR, relative deltadeltaCt expression values based on the comparison with validated constitutive transcripts are presented. Primer sequences for the qRT-PCR are presented in Supplemental Table 1 online.

(A) qRT-PCR for transcripts of key regulatory genes for ABA biosynthesis: NCED9 = NINE-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE9,

(B) qRT-PCR for transcripts of key regulatory genes for ABA degradation: The Lepidium ABA 8'-hydroxylases CYP707A2 and CYP707A3 were analysed.
Mean values +SE of three independent biological RNA samples are presented.

Synopsis: Tissue weakening of the endosperm is required to allow radicle protrusion during seed germination. Cross-species work including tissue-specific transcriptome analysis and biomechanical measurement of endosperm weakening provided a new mechanistic model that explains how ethylene promotes seed germination and counteracts the inhibition of endosperm cap weakening by abscisic acid.
Article in PDF format (1.8 MB)
Supplemental  data file (1.8 MB)
Abstract of Plant Cell 2009 
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