The Plant Cell 21: 3803-3822 (2009)

Ethylene interacts with abscisic acid to regulate endosperm rupture during germination: a comparative approach using Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana  [W][OA]

Ada Linkies, Kerstin Müller, Karl Morris, Veronika Turecková, Meike Wenk, Cassandra S. C. Cadman, Françoise Corbineau, Miroslav Strnad, James R. Lynn, William E. Finch-Savage, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Institute for Biology II, Botany / Plant Physiology, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany, Web: 'The Seed Biology Place' (A.L., Ke.M., M.W., G.L.-M.)
Warwick Horticulture Research International (HRI), Warwick University, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, United Kingdom (Ka.M., C.S.C.C., J.R.L., W.E.F.-S.)
Palacky University and Institute of Experimental Botany Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Laboratory of Growth Regulators, CZ-78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic (V.T., M.S.)
Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Germination et Dormance des Semences, UR5, Site d'Ivry, F-75005 Paris, France (F.C.)

Received July 23, 2009; Returned for revision October 12, 2009; Accepted November 17, 2009; Published December 18, 2009

Arabidopsis germ. Fig. S2

Supplemental Figure 2. The effect of ACC and ABA on the germination of Arabidopsis thaliana: Wild type (Col) and ethylene-related mutants (aco2, ctr1).

(A-E) Time course analyses of testa and endosperm rupture of wild type (WT), the ACO2-deficient mutant aco2 and the loss-of-function signaling mutant ctr1.

(A) Testa and (B) endosperm rupture under optimal conditions (CON, no hormone addition to the medium).

(C,D) Testa rupture of seeds incubated in the presence of (C) ABA or (D) ABA+ACC.

(E) Endosperm rupture of seeds incubated in the presence of ABA or ABA+ACC.

Incubation conditions: continuous light, 24ºC, no cold-stratification. Medium additions, as indicated: 1 µM ABA, 1 mM ACC. Mean values ± SE of three x 50 seeds are presented.

Synopsis: Tissue weakening of the endosperm is required to allow radicle protrusion during seed germination. Cross-species work including tissue-specific transcriptome analysis and biomechanical measurement of endosperm weakening provided a new mechanistic model that explains how ethylene promotes seed germination and counteracts the inhibition of endosperm cap weakening by abscisic acid.
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Abstract of Plant Cell 2009 
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