The Plant Cell 21: 3803-3822 (2009)

Ethylene interacts with abscisic acid to regulate endosperm rupture during germination: a comparative approach using Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana  [W][OA]

Ada Linkies, Kerstin Müller, Karl Morris, Veronika Turecková, Meike Wenk, Cassandra S. C. Cadman, Françoise Corbineau, Miroslav Strnad, James R. Lynn, William E. Finch-Savage, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger
University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Institute for Biology II, Botany / Plant Physiology, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany, Web: 'The Seed Biology Place' (A.L., Ke.M., M.W., G.L.-M.)
Warwick Horticulture Research International (HRI), Warwick University, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, United Kingdom (Ka.M., C.S.C.C., J.R.L., W.E.F.-S.)
Palacky University and Institute of Experimental Botany Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Laboratory of Growth Regulators, CZ-78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic (V.T., M.S.)
Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Germination et Dormance des Semences, UR5, Site d'Ivry, F-75005 Paris, France (F.C.)

Received July 23, 2009; Returned for revision October 12, 2009; Accepted November 17, 2009; Published December 18, 2009

Fig. 5 Linkies et al. 2009

Figure 5. The effect of ethylene, ACC, and ABA on the time course of endosperm rupture and on the Germination Rates GRX% of Lepidium sativum FR14 seeds.

(A) and (B) The times to reach 15 or 50% endosperm rupture (t15% or t50%) of the seed population were determined from the time courses of endosperm rupture in medium without (CON) and with additions (NBD, ABA, ACC, C2H4, or combinations). Germination rates GR15% or GR50% were then calculated (GRX% = 1/tX%) and used in subsequent analyses (gray arrows). The effect of ACC on time course (A) and GR15% (B) of seeds treated without (CON) or with NBD or ABA added.

(C) The effect of C2H4 on GR15% and GR50% of seeds imbibed without (CON) or with NBD or ABA. Numbers above the columns are fold increases in GRX% from the addition of ACC or C2H4 (GRX% ratios ±ACC or ±C2H4). Medium additions, as indicated: 5 µM ABA, 1 mM ACC, 100 µL/L NBD, and 70 µL/L ethylene. Mean values ±SE of 3 x 50 seeds are presented.

Synopsis: Tissue weakening of the endosperm is required to allow radicle protrusion during seed germination. Cross-species work including tissue-specific transcriptome analysis and biomechanical measurement of endosperm weakening provided a new mechanistic model that explains how ethylene promotes seed germination and counteracts the inhibition of endosperm cap weakening by abscisic acid.
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