Tansley Review - New Phytologist 186: 817-831 (2010)

The evolution of seeds

Ada Linkies, Kai Graeber, Charles A. Knight*, Gerhard Leubner-Metzger*

University of Freiburg, Faculty of Biology, Institute for Biology II, Botany / Plant Physiology, Schänzlestr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany, Web: 'The Seed Biology Place' http://www.seedbiology.de (A.L., K.G., G.L.-M.)
Biological Sciences Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 7 CA 93401, USA (C.A.K.)
*Corresponding authors: C.A.K., G.L.-M.

Received December 21, 2009; accepted February 23, 2010; published online April 12, 2010
DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03249.x

Table 1. Description of frequently used terms

ovule structure that consists of the integument(s) surrounding the nucellus (megasporangium); unfertilized, immature seed precursor
nucellus megasporangium; surrounds the megagametophyte; can develop into perisperm after fertilization
megagametophyte female gametophyte, contains the female haploid egg cells (gametes) and several 1000 (gymnosperms) or typically 3-8 (angiosperms) other cells; the mature angiosperm megagametophyte is called embryo sac
integuments 1 (gymnosperms) or 2 (angiosperms) outer layer of the ovule, having an apical opening (micropyle); develops after fertilization into the seed coat (testa)
micropyle apical opening of the integuments; allows the pollen tube to enter the nucellus to release sperm for fertilization
testa seed coat, derived from the integuments of the ovule; dead maternal tissue
endosperm arises from the fusion of a second sperm nucleus with the central cell nucleus of the embryo sac during double fertilization; nutritional tissue during seed development and in the mature seed of most angiosperms, in between testa and embryo
perisperm derived from the nucellus after fertilization; maternal nutritional tissue in the mature seed of some angiosperms
ovary usually lower portion of the angiosperm pistil (carpel or fused carpels) containing ovules; fruits are mature ovaries; ovary tissue develops into the pericarp
pericarp fruit coat of angiosperm fruits, develops from the mature ovary wall and other flower tissues; surrounds the seed(s)

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Figure 1         Figure 2         Figure 3         Table 1
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